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    لطلاب ومدرسى الثانوية Paragraphs

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    لطلاب ومدرسى الثانوية Paragraphs

    مُساهمة  Admin في الجمعة مارس 18, 2011 11:01 pm

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    (1) Energy


    There are different forms أشكال of energy. Most of the energy used today in homes and industry comes from fossil fuelsوقود حفري. Coal, oil and natural gas are all fossil fuels. They are called non-renewable غير متجددة because it takes millions of years to make or renew them. So, we must reduce the amount of non-renewable fuels that we use.
    We need to find other forms of energy that will never run outتنفد / تنتهي . These forms of energy are called renewable. Examples of these are energy from the sun and the wind. Water is another renewable source of energy. It is called hydroelectric power. Nuclear energy is also a clean renewable source مصدر of energy. However, it is dangerous. It is important that we all save energy.

    (2) A Famous writer
    Naguib Mahfouz was born in Cairo in 1911.He began writing when he was only 17. He studied philosophyالفلسفة at Cairo University and graduated in 1945. He decided not to follow a university career, instead he worked as a civil servant موظف حكومي in several governmental ministriesوزارات.
    His first novel was published نشرت in 1939. Since then, he has written more than 30 novels and several short stories. He received many awardsجوائز for his writing. In 1988, he was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature. He was elected انتخب as a memberعضو of the American Academy of Letters and Artsالأكاديمية الأمريكية للفنون والآداب in 1992. In the same year, he was awarded a doctorateدرجة الدكتوراه by the American University in Cairo.

    (3) Newspapers or the internet
    Everyday we are bombardedتنهمر علينا with news from all over the world in newspapers, on the radio and television and on the internet. Newspapers have several advantages. You accompanyتصطحب your favourite newspaper everywhere you go. You can read what you like and discardتهمل what you don’t like. You can read a piece of news with all its detailsتفاصيل .

    However, we are in the age of speedعصر السرعة . Everything is done in a hurry. Most people don’t have time to read newspapers. The internet is the latest meansأحدث وسيلة not only to get news but also to acquire يكتسب any kind of information you want. It is a great blessing. But it is rather expensive. In the near future, the internet will have the upper hand ستكون لها الأولوية not only in communicating news but in all aspectsجوانب / مجالات of life as well.


    (4) Running my own business
    I prefer to start and run my own business instead ofبدلا من waiting for years to get a governmental job وظيفة حكومية. I don’t like to work for somebody else. I want to decide what work I will do each day. I like being my own boss.
    At the same time, it is not easy to do that. I need to be patientصبور and hard working. I may need to get a loan from a bank. I will start a small business. Later, I will expandيوسع it. I may even exportيصدر some of my products. I know it is hard work but the financial rewardsالمكاسب المالية and the job satisfactionالرضا عن العمل are amazing.

    (5) The Sun
    The sun is very important to us. It gives us heat and light. Without the sun, there wouldn't be life on Earth. The energy we get from the sun can be used in different fieldsمجالات . The sun is a long way from the Earth. In ancient times, people knew the importance of the sun. Some of them even worshippedعبدوا the sun.
    There are some dangers of the sun. If you look directly at the sun, it may damage your eyes. The sun gives out X-rays and ultraviolet raysالأشعة فوق البنفسجية . These rays are very harmful to life. Most of these rays get soaked upتمتص in the atmosphere. This is why they do not affect us. In fact we cannot do withoutيستغني عن the sun.

    (6) Something you use everyday and which you would really miss if it hadn't been invented (Computers)
    The computer is the most important invention in the twentieth century. One of the main advantages of computers is that children enjoy using computers. So, they can be used for education. Another advantage is the fact that they help communicateيتصل with people in other countries very quickly. In addition, computers store a lot of information. Moreover, you can work from home if you have a computer.
    Computers are now used in nearly every field. We can now use computers to learn a new language. The police use computers to identify criminalsالتعرف علي المجرمين . Doctors use computers to help them diagnose diseasesيشخص الأمراض and treat patients effectivelyبصورة فعالة . Banks cannot do without computers. Teachers use computers in schools so that students can learn better and faster.
    However,ومع ذلك computers have some disadvantages. One of these disadvantages is that computers are different. Some of them are difficult to use. Another drawback عيب is that a lot of computer games are violent عنيفة . Some children spend too much time indoors playing computer games. Finally, if a computer is not working properlyبشكل صحيح , most people do not know how to fix يصلح it. This can take a lot of time and cost a lot of money.

    (7) A famous place (The Eiffel Towerبرج أيفل)
    The Eiffel Tower is the most famous landmarkمن أشهر المعالم in Paris. It was built in 1889. It was the world's highest structureبناء until 1931. It is 300 meters high. The Tower was named afterسمي باسم Gustave Eiffel, the engineer who designedصمم it. It cost more than a million dollars to build. People from all over the world visit the Eiffel Tower every year.
    The Tower has three levels, which are connected by liftsمتصلة بمصاعد . Visitors can climb the stepsالسلالم to the top of Tower or use the lifts. The Tower has been climbed by mountaineersمتسلقو الجبال . From the top of the Tower you can see most of Paris. The view المنظر from the top of the Tower is wonderful.

    (Cool The Cairo Metro
    The Cairo Metro is a wonderful work of engineeringعمل هندسي . It’s the only underground in Africa or the Middle East. It's fast, cheap and safe. You can go to any place in a very short time. About 2 million passengers use the Metro daily. There are now plans for a Metro line in Alex.
    A decade has passed since the Cairo Metro started its service. It has proved أثبت to be the most efficient الأكثر كفاءة public means of transportوسيلة مواصلات عامة in the city. It links the city suburbsالضواحي in the north and south with downtownوسط المدينة . One of its great merits مزايا is that it is environment friendly, صديق للبيئة having no fumesعادم to pollute the atmosphere. Moreover, it is the only public means of transport where smoking is strictly forbiddenممنوع منعا باتا . Those who smoke pay a fineغرامة of 10 pounds.

    (9) The importance of trees
    Trees are very important to our life. Animals and people breathe inيستنشق oxygen and breathe outيخرج carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxideثاني أكسيد الكربون is a poisonousسام gas. Plants and trees take in carbon dioxide and give out oxygen. If we cut down too many trees, there would be more carbon dioxide. This is very harmful.
    Trees provide us with many useful things such as rubberالمطاط and medicines. Some trees may provide a cureعلاج for diseases like cancer. Planting trees is very useful. This helps to reduce the amount of pollution. Trees help to keep the balance of natureالمحافظة علي توازن الطبيعة . If the balance of nature is upset اختل , life on Earth will be impossible. We have to take great care of trees and punishنعاقب those who cut them down.


    (10) Saving the rain forestsإنقاذ الغابات المطيرة
    A forest is a large area of land covered with trees. Rain forests are home to موطن لـ millions of plant and animal speciesأنواع نواع أ on Earth. If we destroy their habitatsموطن النبات أو الحيوان, some of these species will become extinctمنقرض . This leads toيؤدي إلى a disturbanceاختلال of the balance of nature. We have got to do something to save the rain forests.
    People cut down the rain forests for different reasons. They want to make money by using the wood to make things like furniture and paper. Sometimes they want to get more land for cattleالماشية or make space for buildings and roads. Cutting down the rain forests is very harmful. These forests soak upتمتص the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Trees are major suppliersمصادر إمداد رئيسية of oxygen.
    11) My plans for the future
    (What career are you going to choose and why?)

    We all have our dreams which we hope will come trueتتحقق . I have many plans for the future. I want to go to university and become a doctor. I'd like to practise medicine for a few years. After that, I'd like to do research.
    I hope to investigateيبحث the causes of diseases like cancer or brain disease. I'd like to learn more and more about those diseases which make people sufferيعاني a lot. Thereforeلذلك , I must study hard. I'd like to set up experiments and make things that can really help mankind. البشرية I want to help people become happy. I hope my plans for the future will pay off. تنجح

    (12) The advantages and disadvantages of modern technology
    Our life today is quite different from life fifty years ago. Life in the past was very simple and easy. In the past people used animals to go from place to place. People died from many diseases which they could not cure. Today, thanks to بفضل modern science and technology, there are many inventions which have made man’s life easier and more comfortable. Modern means of transport help us to travel long distances in a very short time. The progressتقدم in medicine has enabled us to find a cure for most diseases. We also have pure نقية water and electric supply.
    However modern technology has several disadvantages. The most noticeableملحوظة disadvantage is pollution. Pollution is very harmful to man's life and can cause many diseases. Man now depends too much on machines. There are a lot of people who can't find jobs because we use machines to do most of our work. Many people nowadays suffer from stress ضغط / توتر and worry. Some people may have a nervous breakdownانهيار عصبي.
    (13) The historical character I would most like to have met
    Our history is full of great men who did their best to serve their country. One of the greatest men in the history of Egypt is Saad Zaghloul. He was the leader of the 1919 Revolutionثورة . He fought against the British ruleحكم . He wanted Egypt to become an independent countryدولة مستقلة .
    Saad believed that the Egyptian people could win victoryالنصر in the war against those who occupied احتلوا their land. All Egyptians supported ساندوا Saad in his call forالدعوة إلى independence. The British sent Saad into exile المنفي , but he continued fighting until his death. Saad was a rare example of a man who would sacrificeيضحي بـ everything for the good of his country.

    (14) Living in space
    Next summer I am going to travel to space with three friends. We are going to have some training at first. The training will be long and difficult. You must be fitلائق جسميا in order to survive in space. We are going to take some things with us like cannedمعلب food and bottles of water.
    In space there are a lot of problems. There is no gravityالجاذبية in space. It is hard to live without gravity. We will stay in the space shuttle all the time. We will miss our families. We will try to keep ourselves busy by reading books or listening to music. Living in space will be an exciting experience in spite of its disadvantages.

    (15) Lifelong learningالتعلم مدي الحياة
    Lifelong learning goes on for lifeمدي الحياة , from the time you graduateيتخرج until you retireيتقاعد . This is necessary as employersأصحاب العمل do not offer permanent دائمة jobs. We must learn the skills requiredالمهارات المطلوبة for different jobs. Companies pay a lot to provide training for their employeesالعاملين . Lifelong learning helps us to acquire the knowledgeيكتسب المعرفة and skills needed in the labour market.
    Distance learningالتعلم عن بعد is a methodطريقة of study that helps us to continue our learning. We need to continue learning to keep up with نواكب the latest developmentsأحدث التطورات in different fields. Human knowledge is increasing all the time. If we do not update نطور our knowledge, we will not be able to live in today's world. In fact, lifelong learning is important to everyone.

    (16) How we can help to protect and improve the environment
    Environmental pollutionالتلوث البيئي is a very serious problem nowadays. This pollution causes great damage أضرار كبيرة to the environment and all living things. There are a lot of things we can do to preserveيحافظ علي the environment. Factories should be moved to land outside cities. A great number of trees should be planted along the sides of the roads. Trees take in carbon dioxide and release oxygen, so they help to clean the air.
    The government should pass laws to reduce the number of cars on the roads. We have to spread awarenessينشر الوعي among ordinary people of the importance of preserving the environment. We must teach young children how to keep the environment clean. If we succeed in preserving (conserving) the environment, our children and grandchildren can enjoy the world we live in. Preserving the environment has become a very important issue مسألة هامة in the modern world.

    (17) Recycling إعادة التصنيع
    Many societies reuse materials that are thrown away. Materials ranging from precious metals معادن ثمينة to plastic spoons, can be reused. This recycling process extracts تستخلص the original material المادة الأصلية and uses it in new products. In general, using recycled materials المواد المعاد تصنيعها to make new products costs less and requires يتطلب less energy than using new materials. The most commonly recycled waste product is printed المطبوعة materials.

    Glass is a material which is economical to recycle. The recycled glass is melted يصهرand formed into new products. Certain types of nuclear waste النفايات النووية can be recycled. Rare materials, such as gold and silver, are recycled because getting new supplies is expensive.It reduces pollution because recycling a product creates less pollution than producing a new one. Most experts الخبراء state يبينون that the economic consequences النتائج الاقتصادية of recycling are positive in the long term إيجابية علي المدى البعيد.

    (18) A Famous Egyptian scientist – Ahmed Zewail)
    Ahmed Zewail is a worldwide famous Egyptian scientist. He was educated at Alexandria University. After his graduation, he went to the United Sates of America to continue his education. There he worked very hard and outdidتفوق علي everyone else.

    In 1998, he won the Franklin Instituteمعهد Award after he had discovered the smallest unit of time. This award is usually given to famous scientists and inventors. Dr. Zewail also uses very fast lasers to find out more about the chemicals. His work helps scientists to produce new and better drugs for curing diseases. In, fact Ahmed Zewail is a very good example that all Egyptian young men should follow.


    (19) The Toshka Project مشروع توشكي

    Upper Egypt covers about 58 percent of Egypt’s area and millions of people live there. Most Upper Egypt is empty desert. The government plans to change that by creating a new valley parallelمواز لـ to the Nile. This is called Toshka Valley, but it is also known as the New Delta. Most of Egypt’s population lives in 4% of the total areaالمساحة الكلية of the country.

    A million Egyptian babies are born every year. It is therefore very important to reclaim new lands to house and feed them. We have to importيستورد most of the food we eat. The New Delta Project will change all this. Huge amounts of food will be produced so that we will be able to feed our people and we may be able to get hard currencyالعملة الصعبة by exportingتصدير some.

    (20) Value of reading أهمية القراءة / Reading for all القراءة للجميع

    Reading is very important. It is the food of the mind. Through reading, we benefit fromيستفيد من the experienceخبرة of other people. Reading has a good effect on our behaviourسلوك . It helps us to acquire good qualitiesصفات . It enables us to understand the world that we live in. It helps us to solve our problems in life.

    Through reading, we get a lot of information about the progress in science and technology. By reading, we never feel lonelyيشعر بالوحدة . In fact, books are the best friends. Reading helps us to develop our charactersشخصيات and widen our horizonsآفاق . Mrs. Mubarak has started the project ‘Reading for All’. This project aims at spreadingنشر the habit of reading among young children. It also aims at developing the abilitiesقدرات of young children to become good citizensمواطنين in the future. Many public libraries have been set up in towns and villages. This will enrich our cultural life and createيخلق generationsأجيال of scientists and thinkersمفكرين .

    (21) Life in the future
    Life in the future will be different from life now. Many changes will take place in every field. New inventions and new discoveries will appear. Man will send more spaceshipsسفن الفضاء to other planets and may find life possible there. Vast areas مناطق شاسعة of the world’s desert will be reclaimedيستصلح . The production of food will increase. A cure for dangerous diseases such as cancer and AIDS may be discovered.
    New sources of energy will be found. Computers will be widely used in all fields, especially in education. Means of transport will be faster and more comfortable. In fact, life will be very complicated معقدة and man will depend completely on machines. No one can be sure if life in the future will be better or worse.

    (22) Life in big cities

    Life in big cities is very hard. People there suffer from many problems such as over-population, housing problems and crowded means of transport. It takes a very long time to go from one place to another. There is very little cooperation تعاون among people. overcrowdingالزحام الشديد results inيؤدي إلى many accidents.

    Pollution caused by car fumes is a major cause of many diseases. The air is unclean and impureغير نقي . There are no gardens or green areas where people can spend nice time. The noise from cars and machines also make life in big cities unbearableلا تحتمل . Great efforts are needed to solve the problems in big cities. People should think of going to new cities built in the desert or the country.

    (23) Unemployment البطالة
    Unemployment means that there aren’t enough jobs for people. The most important cause of unemployment is over-population. Thousands of young people graduateيتخرجون every year from schools and universities. They remain for long years without jobs. This is because most of them are waiting for governmental jobs.
    Another cause of unemployment is the increasing use of modern technology in all fields. Man depends a lot on machines. This leads to a lack of job opportunitiesنقص فرص العمل . To solve this problem, we should encourageنشجع young people to go the desert and reclaim it. They should look for jobs in the new cities. Banks can lend them loansقروض to start their own projects. مشروعات

    (24) Tourism السياحة
    Tourism is the second main source of national income after petroleum products. المنتجات البترولية It brings in a lot of hard currency which we need to importنستورد goods. Tourists from all over the world visit Egypt all the year roundعلي مدار العام. Egypt has many famous sights and tourist attractionsمناطق جذب السياح. Tourists also enjoy the fine weather in Egypt.
    Tourists can visit places of interest such as the Pyramids, the temples, the museums and other historic places. The government does its best to encourage the tourist industry. New tourist villages are built. Splendidفخمـة hotels are erected. The government provides cheap and comfortable means of transport. Egyptians do their best to welcome tourists and treat them well. When tourism flourishesتزدهر , our national incomeالدخل القومي improves.


    (25) The value of sports أهمية الرياضة
    There are many kinds of sports. The most common sports are football, basketball, volleyball, tennis, skiing, swimming and cycling. Sports have great value in our life. They are very important for keeping us healthy. People who are used to practisingممارسة sports usually enjoy good health. They are always active and do their jobs well.
    Sports are a good way of spending our spare time. Sports help us gain good qualities such as patience, cooperation and how to face difficult problems and situationsمواقف . Sports teach us good manners and develop our character. Some sports help us to defend ourselves such as karate and judo. In fact, sports are very essentialأساسية for us.


    (26)Egypt’s role in making peaceدور مصر في صنع السلام

    Egypt believes that all countries should live in peace and security. Therefore, Egypt makes great efforts and does its best to spread peace in the Middle East. Egypt always calls for peace and cooperationالتعاون among all nations. Egypt has a firm belief اعتقاد ثابت that all disputes النزاعات and disagreements الخلافات should be solved peacefully. بطريقة سلمية Egypt is playing a vital role in making peace between Palestine and Israel.
    The whole world supportsيساند Egypt in its call for دعوتها إلى peace. This is because conflictsالصراعات and wars result inتؤدي إلى destruction الدمار and instabilityعدم الاستقرار. Peace helps countries to achieve welfareالرخاء and prosperityالرفاهيـة. When peace prevailsيسـود, all efforts are directedموجهـة toward building and constructionالتعمير .


    (27) Over-populationالتزايد السكاني

    Over-population is a very serious problem. Egypt has been suffering from this problem for a long time now. The increase in population has led to many other problems such as shortage of food, نقص الطعامovercrowded means of transport, ازدحام وسائل المواصلات lack نقص of job opportunitiesفرص العمل and the problem of housingالإسكان. There aren’t enough houses, jobs or food for all people. If we continue to increase in this way, we may face starvationمجاعة/الموت جوعا.
    Great efforts are made to solve this problem. The government does its best to convinceتقنـع the people of the importance of birth control تحديد النسل and family planningتنظيم الأسرة . Vast areasمناطق شاسعة of the desert land have been reclaimed. New cities and communities have been built. Mass media are doing their best to persuade تقنع people to participate effectively يشاركوا بصورة فعالة in solving this problem.

    (28) Pollution التلوث
    Pollution is a difficult problem in modern life. There are different kinds of pollution. Air Pollution is caused by car fumesعادم السيارات which contain very harmful substances. مواد ضارة These substances have a bad effect on health and can cause many diseases. The sea is polluted by the chemical waste النفايات الكيميائية thrown into it by factories and ships. The soil is also polluted by the chemicals we use such as insecticidesالمبيدات الحشرية.
    All these kinds of pollution affect not only man’s life but animal life and plant life as well. The world is making great efforts to fight نحاربpollution. Ordinary people have to cooperate with يتعاونوا مع the government and scientists to get rid ofيتخلص من pollution. If pollution continues to increase, life on earth will be in great danger. Even ordinary people can help to eliminateيزيل / يتخلص من pollution.
    (29) The Library of Alexandria
    Egypt is the cradle of civilization. مهد الحضارةThe library of Alexandria was the world’s first university. The old library of Alexandria was burnt a long time ago. Great efforts were made to rebuild the library. The revivalإحياء of the ancient library aims at building a modern public library.
    The new library was designed like a circle. The library of Alexandria is expected to be the centre of culture, science and research. It will contain the best references مراجع on different subjects. The UNESCO اليونسكوcontributed toأسهمت في the revival of the library of Alexandria. Egypt should be proud of this great cultural project.
    (30) Terrorism
    Terrorism has become an international problem. The word "terrorism" comes from the word "terror" which means a violent actionفعل عنيف which causes great fear. The terrorist attacksهجمات إرهابية in many parts of the world caused thousands of deaths. Terrorism is against religion and civilization. Terrorism makes people feel unsafe.
    Governments must co-operate if they want to fight international terrorismالإرهاب الدولي . President Mubarak has always believed that terrorism will continue unless the Palestinian problem is solved. He called for an international conference on terrorism. Terrorists must be severely punishedيعاقبون بشدة . Ordinary people must take part in the fight against terrorism.
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    تاريخ التسجيل : 12/03/2011
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    رد: لطلاب ومدرسى الثانوية Paragraphs

    مُساهمة  نور القمر في الثلاثاء مارس 29, 2011 11:18 am

    شكرا جزيلا لحضرتك

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